Thông tin thiết thực

Thông tin thiết thực

1.Tên nước: Cộng hoà Bồ Đào Nha (Portuguese Republic).Thủ đô: Lixbon. Ngày quốc khánh: 10 tháng 6

2.Vị trí địa lý: nằm ở Tây Nam châu Âu, giáp Bắc Đại Tây Dương và phía Tây của Tây Ban Nha.

3. Diện tích: 92.391 km2

4. Khí hậu: Ôn đới biển, thời tiết mát và nhiều mưa ở phía Bắc, ấm áp và khô ở phía Nam.

5. Dân số: 10.566.000 người (ước tính năm 2002).

6. Địa hình: Núi non ở phía Bắc sông Tagus, đồng bằng nhấp nhô ở phía Nam.

7. Tài nguyên thiên nhiên: Cá, rừng, tungsten, quặng sắt, quặng uranium, đá cẩm thạch.

8. Thiên tai: Vùng Azores thường chịu ảnh hưởng của các trận động đất mạnh.

9. Các vấn đề về môi trường: Đất đai bị xói mòn; ô nhiễm không khí do chất thải công nghiệp và xe cộ; ô nhiễm nước đặc biệt là vùng bờ biển.

10. Chính thể: Dân chủ nghị viện.

11. Hiến pháp: Thông qua ngày 25-4-1976, được sửa đổi lại nhiều lần (30/10/1982, 1/6/1989, 5/11/1992, 3/9/1997).

12. Quyền bầu cử: 18 tuổi trở lên, phổ thông đầu phiếu

13.Cơ quan hành pháp:

– Người đứng đầu nhà nước: Tổng thống

– Người đứng đầu chính phủ: Thủ tướng

– Ngoài ra còn có Hội đồng nhà nước hoạt động như cơ quan tư vấn cho Tổng thống.

– Bầu cử: Tổng thống được bầu theo phổ thông đầu phiếu, nhiệm kỳ 5 năm; sau khi bầu cử Quốc hội, lãnh đạo của đảng đa số hay lãnh đạo của liên minh đa số thường được Tổng thống bổ nhiệm làm Thủ tướng.

14. Cơ quan lập pháp: Quốc hội (230 ghế, được bầu theo hình thức phổ thông đầu phiếu, nhiệm kỳ 4 năm).

15. Cơ quan tư pháp: Toà án Tối cao, các thẩm phán được bổ nhiệm suốt đời.

16. Ngôn ngữ: Tiếng Bồ Đào Nha

17. Đơn vị tiền tệ: Euro (EUR)

18.Thành viên các tổ chức: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (quan sát viên), MIGA, NAM (khách mời), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (quan sát viên), OECD, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMISET, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC..

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